Arabica was planted first time on Java island, at Kedawung area, a plantation located closed to Batavia ( now Jakarta) by Dutch in 1696, brought by Dutch trade vessel, Adrian van Ommen from Malabar, India. This effort did not success due to natural disasters of earthquake and flood during that time. Dutch brought coffee tree from Malabar and successed and the very best quality of coffee is used as the seed for all plantations around Inodnesia. Dutch spread the plants to Sumatra, Sulawesi, Bali, Timor as well as other islands in Indonesia.
In 1907, Dutch brought other species, Robusta ( Coffea canephora). This was planted to the lower land and not effected by diseases.
Robusta became the most planted, replaces Liberica, and most available in Indonesia and became one of important export product.
Indonesia Robusta has a distinguish taste and vary from each area in this country.
After Independent, the coffee plantations are owned by farmers and. You can see it till now.